PROPOLIS, THE ALTERNATIVE NATURAL MATERIAL FOR SEX REVERSAL IN TILAPIA, Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol.7 No.2, 2012
Growth of tilapia male is better than female. Practically, cultured of all male populationare more efficient than that of mixed sex population. Sex reversal with 17-methyltestosterone hormone is the most popular technique to make all or nearly allmale tilapia. But, alternative substitution materials for sex reversal must be found dueto limited application of this synthetic hormone that caused of its carcinogenicpotential on human body. Besides that, 17-methyltestosterones are also suspectedas the unfriendly material for environment. Several early studies were conducted tofind the alternative materials for sex reversal in tilapia. One of the highly potentialmaterial found is aromatase inhibitors, the materials which are function to inhibit thesecretion of aromatase, the catalyst enzyme in the bio-synthetic of estrogen fromandrogen. Due to the chemical characteristic materials and relatively high price ofaromatase inhibitor, we tried to find the natural material which has similar compositionor function to that compound. One of the natural suspected materials which hassimilar function with aromatase inhibitors is propolis. Chrysin as apart of flavonoidcompound found in the propolis shows the most potent inhibitors of aromatase. Earlystudy showed that application of propolis up to 3 mL.kg-1 of feed resulted the highestpercentage of male in tilapia. Based on that study, the optimum dosage of propolis forsex reverse of the tilapia has not been known. This study was conducted to knowthe optimum dosage of a commercial propolis for sex reversal in tilapia, especially inNIFI red tilapia. The dosages proposed in this study were 3, 4, 5 and 6 mL propolis.kg-1of feed. Sex reversal was carried out in aquarium for 35 days. Rearing of fingerlingfish for 2 months was conducted in hapas suspended in earthen pond. The resultshowed that application of 5 mL propolis.kg-1 of feed resulted the highest proportionof male, which up to 76.67%. Application of all propolis dosages in this study did notaffect to the survival rate and the abnormality of fish.
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